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Understanding Step-up Transformers And Their Working Principles

Understanding step up transformers and their working principles

Definition, Functions, and Working Principles of Step-up Transformers. Step-up transformers serve much the same purpose as step-down transformers in that they alter the voltage level entering the transformer terminals.

A back-and-forth operating system on the transformer modifies each of these incoming voltages. A step-up transformer and a step-down transformer differ from one another by the amount of voltage they produce.

Step up may be translated as rising or enlarging, meaning that the purpose of this kind of converter can be inferred only from the word.

Simply said, the difference between step-up and step-down transformers can be seen in the image below. Be sure to pay close attention to each transformer's main and secondary winding voltage levels as well.

Working Principle of Step Up Transformer

This step-up transformer operates based on electromagnetic induction, following the equations of Lorentz and Faraday.

When the main winding receives ac voltage, an electromagnet is inducted, which is the basis for the transformer's operation (alternating). The transformer core will then experience a magnetic flux, which also generates an electromotive force or GGL on the secondary winding. Ideally, all of the power supplied to the primary coil will be transferred to the secondary coil.

An illustration of the magnetic induction that takes place in a transformer may be seen below:

Illustration of the working principle of the transformer

Because of this, the voltage produced in the secondary coil will be greatly influenced by the primary coil's voltage and current levels, as well as the quantity of primary and secondary windings. You may see a formula for figuring out the transformer voltage in the section below:

Step-up transformer formula drawing

  • Vp: The principal part's voltage in volts.
  • Vs: The secondary part's voltage in volts.
  • Np: Short for the primary winding number.
  • Ns: Stands for a secondary winding number.
  • Ip: The ampere value of the principal (input) part's current.
  • Is: The amperes of current flowing through the secondary component (output).

The step-up transformer works by increasing the winding ratio in the primary and secondary if you already grasp the calculation I provided above. such that when compared to the main winding, the secondary winding will be greater. In the shape of an image, it looks like this:

If the voltages E1 and E2 in the diagram stand-in for the number of windings T1 and T2, we can see that T2 > T1 results in a voltage ratio of E1:E2 of 1:2, which indicates that the secondary voltage is twice as high as the primary voltage. This is the same as a step-up transformer converting a voltage of 110 volts to 220 volts.

Step Up Transformers' characteristics

It is exceedingly challenging to tell step-up transformers from step-down transformers when examined physically. Because the shape is identical and cannot be identified without consulting the transformer's specs. But generally speaking, a step-up transformer has the following features:

  • Np< Ns is the result of the primary of the transformer having fewer windings than the second portion.
  • The primary voltage will always be lower than the secondary voltage due to the step-up function it performs, hence Vp< Vs.
  • Primary current will have a stronger flow than secondary current, resulting in Ip > IS.

Step Up Transformer Function

The step-up transformer raises the mains voltage or converts a voltage of a specific level into a greater voltage. For instance, a step-up transformer that is 12v to 220v accepts an electrical voltage of 12 volts and increases it to an electrical voltage of 220 volts coming out of the output terminal of the step-up transformer. Inverter circuits in solar power plants frequently employ step-up transformers like this one.

1. Step Up Transformer Function In Microwave

The Magnetron is a component of the microwave that transforms electrical energy into high-frequency microwaves. Magnetrons also need a high voltage and current to operate, namely through the use of a step-up transformer.

2. Step Up Transformer Function On UPS (INVERTER)

Uninterruptible Power Supply, or UPS, is a device that provides backup power in case the computer's primary supply goes out. A step-up transformer, which is typically also referred to as an inverter transformer, is also included in UPSs. Because charging is naturally done on a dry battery in the UPS when the electricity is under normal conditions, the transformer function on the UPS can be utilized as a step up or step down.

3. Step Up Transformer Function on Television

High voltage is needed for TVs to create pictures, especially tube televisions. A cathode beam, which creates the image on tube televisions, has to be released at a high voltage. This necessitates using a step-up transformer to increase the supply voltage.

4. Function Of A Step Up Transformer In Electrical Transmission

A step-up transformer is used in the field of electricity to transport and distribute electrical energy, often from a power plant generator. Additionally, the step-up transformer is utilized to raise the electrical voltage before it is sent to the substation. This minimizes the amount of electrical energy that is wasted during transmission (lose power).

Theoretically, a conductor in the form of a very big copper cable is also required to move huge electrical power, even up to a megawatt count. The price to deliver the electricity increases with the size of the copper wire.

Therefore, alternating current (AC) power is utilized since it is more effective to distribute electric current via a transformer. The smaller the electric current, however, the less copper wire is required.


Therefore, a step-up transformer is a transformer used to increase voltage such that it is higher than the voltage at the source. Hopefully, this post can assist you and broaden your understanding of electronics, particularly electricity.